36 BYZANTINE CHURCHES CHAP. accessible from a gate and landing (Narli Kapou) on the shore of the Sea of Marmora.1 According to the historian Theophanes,2 the church was erected in the year 463 by the patrician Studiuss after whom the church and the monastery attached to it were named. He is described as a Roman of noble birth and large means who devoted his wealth to the service of God38 and may safely be identified with Studius who held the consulship in 454 during the reign of Marciaru4 If we may trust the Anonymus,5 the church erected by Studius replaced a sanctuary which stood at one time, like the Chora, outside the city. Seeing the territory immediately beyond the Constantinian fortifications was well peopled before its inclusion within the city limits by Theodosius IL5 there is nothing improbable in the existence of such extramural sanctuaries? and as most, if not all, of them would be small buildings, they would naturally require enlargement or reconstruction when brought within the wider bounds of the capital. According to Suidas,6 the building was at first a parochial church ; its attachment to a monastery was an after-thought of its founder. The monastery was large and richly endowed, capable of accommodating one thousand monks.7 Its first inmates were taken from a fraternity known as the Akoimeti3 c the sleepless* ; so named because in successive companies they 1 Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De ceremoniis, pp. 462-3. 2 P. 175. But according to Epigram 4 in the Anthologia Graeca epigram-matum (Stadt-Mueller, 1894) Studius became consul after the erection of the church and as a reward for its ex*ection. Under the heading els rbv vabv rov Hpo8p6ju.ov & rots 'Srovdiou it says TQVTOV 'ludvvy, Xpicrrov yiceydAy OefldTrovrt, SrotfStos &y\abv olKov ^efytaro. /ca/waXfy-ttosr 8£ rQv K&/J,tov eftpero fuffdbv e\&v f>TraT7jl8a pdfiSov, In Suidas is a similar epigram in honour of the erection by Studius of another church $ rov dpxtffrparifjyov NaK&Xelas in Phrygia. 3 Tkeodori Studitae <vtta, Migne, Patrohgia Graeca^ tome 99* 4 Patch. Chron. p. 591. 6 Banduri, i, p. 54. In the recent excavations carried on in the Studion by the Russian Archaeological Institute of Constantinople, the foundations of an earlier building were discovered below the floor of the church. The line of the foundations ran through the church from north-east to south-west, parallel to the wall of the cistern to the south-west of the church. Perhaps it is too soon to determine the character of the earlier building. 8 s.v.: ^ rw Srou&rw^ /*<wr? irpbrepov teal KaGo\iKrjs tfCKKyvtas fir, ticrrepov fit novf/tr. The reading is doubtful. A proposed emendation isy r&v 7 Codinus, De aed. p. 102.